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MKA Access Hold Switch Stephen William Hawking is one of the greatest international figures in this century, Professor of Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge University, and the most important contemporary general relativity and cosmologist. Won the Lucas mathematics chair at...
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Stephen William Hawking is one of the greatest international figures in this century, Professor of Mathematics and Theoretical Physics at Cambridge University, and the most important contemporary general relativity and cosmologist. Won the Lucas mathematics chair at Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. This is the highest honorary chair in the history of natural sciences following Newton and Dirac.
In the 1970s, he and Penrose together proved the famous singularity theorem, for which they together won the Wolf Prize in physics in 1988. He is therefore hailed as the world's most famous scientific thinker and the most outstanding theoretical physicist after Einstein. With a thin "A Brief History of Time", it conquered 30 million readers worldwide. Black hole theory makes quantum theory and thermodynamics perfectly unified in "Hawking radiation", and the quantum cosmology he proposed in the 1980s without boundary assumption solves the "first promotion" problem that has plagued the scientific community for hundreds of years.
Stephen William Hawking’s research laid the groundwork for understanding the origins of the black hole and the universe, but he himself pointed out that he was in The Simpsons and Star Trek: The Next Generation) is equally exciting.
Hawking emphasized in the "Large Design" that the universe does not need a creator or "God" to begin with "Philosophy is dead", which means that human beings will be detached from foolish self-serving, which denied that pure philosophy and religion can really explain Naturally, this also shows that major religions are only systems that explore the unknown in the ancient spiritual world and pursue the liberation of liberation, rather than objective truth. With the progress of the times, human civilization should also catch up and not be far behind. This is why the generations of men of insight seek the meaning of existence, life, and the universe. Solving these propositions should have been the task of the philosophers, but it is a pity that the high development of science has made it impossible for philosophy to keep up.
Hawking hopes to unravel the mysteries of the birth of the universe. In the 1970s, Hawking applied quantum mechanics to the interpretation of black hole phenomena. In the following 30 years, it has become more difficult to explain the entire universe with quantum mechanics. Hawking wants to find a theory that can perfectly explain the phenomenon of the entire universe to illustrate the universe that was born from 13.7 billion years ago until now, but many years have passed and he has not reached a conclusion even if he is infinitely close to him. According to his theory of quantum mechanics, the birth of the universe was a result of the Big Bang. It was a product of an explosion that was compressed but infinitely small, but had enormous gravity (which can also be understood as an infinite density). The theoretical category of quantum mechanics cannot explain how this process is performed. Why is this? Hawking said "there must be a theory that can describe small-scale gravity."
Hawking's colleague, Michael Green of Queen Mary, London, participated in the construction of the superstring theory, referred to as “string theory” for short, pointing out that all particles and natural forces are in fact the same as tiny strings in the shock. The object solves the gravity problem that Hawking has been trying hard to solve. The theory must be based on the fact that the universe must have 9, 10, or even more than 11 dimensions, and the 3D world that the human being is in may just be one of the membranes of the real universe. .
On January 24, 2014, Prof. Stephen Hawking, a famous British scientist, once again shocked the physics community with his theories related to black holes. In the paper "Information Preservation and Weather Forecasting For Black Holes", Hawking pointed out that because the boundary of a black hole cannot be found, "black holes do not exist," but "gray holes" do exist. This is to solve the "firewall" problem in the new theory of "black hole does not exist", it is not really does not exist. The boundary of a black hole is also known as the "vision horizon." The classical black hole theory holds that matter and radiation outside the black hole can enter the interior of the black hole through the horizon, and no matter or radiation within the black hole can penetrate the horizon.
Hawking's "grey hole" theory holds that after being trapped in a black hole for a period of time, matter and energy are released into the universe again. In his essay, he admitted that his initial understanding of the visual world was flawed and that light could actually pass through the horizon. When light escapes from the core of the black hole, it moves like a man running on a treadmill and slowly contracts through outward radiation. “Classic black hole theory holds that no matter matter or radiation can escape from the black hole, and quantum mechanics theory shows that energy and information can escape from the black hole.” Hawking also pointed out that the interpretation of this escape process requires a The theory of successful integration with other basic forces. In the past nearly one hundred years, no one in the physics community tried to explain this process.
For Hawking's "grey hole" theory, some scientists expressed their approval and others were skeptical. Joseph Polchinski, a theoretical physicist at the Kauffli Institute of Theoretical Physics in the United States, pointed out that according to Einstein’s gravity theory, the boundary of a black hole exists, but it is different from other parts of the universe. Not obvious. In fact, as early as in 2004 Hawking had made a similar statement. On July 21st of that year, Hawking pointed out at the "17th International Conference on General Relativity and Universal Gravitation" that the black hole was not "completely swallowed" with everything around it, as he and most other physicists had previously believed. Some of the information that is drawn into the depths of the black hole may be released at some point.
In 1973, Hawking said that he had reached the conclusion through calculation that while the quality of the black hole was reduced during its formation, it continued to emit radiation in the form of energy. This is the famous Hawking radiation theory. The black hole radiation mentioned in the theory does not include any information on the internal matter of the black hole. Once the black hole is condensed and evaporated, all the information in it disappears. This is called The "black hole paradox." This argument and the related theory of quantum mechanics appear contradictory. Because modern quantum physics believes that this material information will never completely disappear.
For more than 30 years, Hawking has attempted to explain this paradoxical viewpoint with various speculations. Hawking has stated that the quantum motion in the black hole is a special case. Since the gravitational force in the black hole is very strong, quantum mechanics is no longer applicable at this time. Hawking's argument does not convince many skeptical scholars in the scientific community. It now appears that Hawking has finally given a more persuasive answer to this self-contradictory view. Hawking said that the black holes never completely shut themselves off - Hawking radiation. They gradually radiated more and more heat to the outside world for a long time. Then the black hole would eventually open itself and release the information contained in it.
On August 16, 2016, Jeff Steinhauer, a professor at the Israel Institute of Technology in Haifa, demonstrated the quantum effect of Hawking radiation in a paper published in the journal Nature Physics. He created a kind of sound black hole instead of a light black hole, using a long tube with sound particles, that is, the phonon "vision". Professor Stan Hall discovered in 2014 that phonons were randomly generated in the horizon. In his latest results, Steinhauer proved that these phonons were one of a pair of correlated phonons, thus demonstrating the quantum effect of Hawking radiation.