Harvard Alert Switch
Harvard Alert Switch Harvard University From 1775 to 1783, 13 British colonies in North America broke out an independent war against British colonial rule. Harvard College follows the trend and stands on the side of sympathy and support for the just cause of the War of Independence. In...
Harvard Alert Switch
From 1775 to 1783, 13 British colonies in North America broke out an independent war against British colonial rule. Harvard College follows the trend and stands on the side of sympathy and support for the just cause of the War of Independence. In Massachusetts, almost all famous revolutionaries are Harvard graduates, including one of the drafters of the United States "Declaration of Independence" and the second president of the United States, John Adams.
On July 3, 1775, George Washington took command of the North American War of Independence Army at Cambridge, home of Harvard College. His headquarters was also located in Cambridge. After the birth of the United States of America in 1776, Harvard College was the main leader of the War of Independence George Washington, Thomas Jefferson (the main drafter of the "Declaration of Independence", the third president of the United States), and John Jay (the first US Supreme Court) (Chief Justice), Alexander Hamilton (First Federal Secretary of the Treasury of the United States) and others conferred an honorary doctor of laws degree.
In 1780, Massachusetts issued a new constitution, Harvard College was expanded and renamed Harvard University; in the same year, a professor of medicine was established. After the establishment of medical science, professors carried out various scientific researches and published their research results in North American and British academic journals. Natural science finally established a firm position at Harvard and began to influence other colleges.
In the early years of the North American War of Independence, the Harvard College fund, together with the rent of the real estate, was less than £1,700. In 1793, after the war, Harvard’s funds exceeded 182,000 U.S. dollars.
The Hollis theological professor David Tappan and the principal Joseph Willard experienced a struggle after their death in 1803 and 1804, respectively. In 1805, Harvard took over the administration of Henry Ware, a school of thought. The school spirit began to teach Amishonism. The transition; this also led to the secularization of educational institutions in the United States. They formed alliances with the Federalist Party and opened many institutions to expand their political and cultural power; at the same time, some theological conservatives used the mass media to criticize each other's attempts to concoct oligarchy political culture and undermine the political principles of the Republic. . Harvard was therefore called the "one-discipline Vatican" in the 1850s.
A seminary was established in 1816 and a law school was established in 1817.
In 1829, Quincy became president of Harvard University. He made great efforts to reverse the direction of Harvard University and strongly advocated the emphasis on science teaching. During his 16 years of service (1829~1845), he established the School of Science at Harvard University and established an observatory. In the 18th and 19th centuries, with the development of Harvard University, the scope of the school curriculum was expanded and the center of gravity was switched, and natural sciences received great attention.
In the first half of the 19th century, Harvard University's influence exceeded that of Massachusetts, reaching the central and southern United States.
From 1869 to 1909, Charles William Eliot served as principal and fundamentally made Harvard a modern American research university. During his tenure as the principal, Charles Eliot deleted the cultural elements that were inherent in the curriculum so that students could voluntarily and selectively learn relevant religious cultures; he gained new vitality in law schools and medical schools, and built new ones. The School of Business Administration, School of Dentistry, and College of Arts and Sciences rose from 1,000 to 3,000 registered students, teaching staff increased from 49 to 278, and school funds increased from 23 million to 225 million US dollars. Eliot's reforms include elective courses, small classes, and entrance exams. This "Harvard model" affects the US national high and secondary education policies. In addition, Eliot is responsible for publishing the famous "Harvard Classics", collecting "great books" from multiple disciplines. After his death in 1926, his name became synonymous with Harvard as a higher education in the United States.
In the 20th century, the status and reputation of Harvard rose rapidly with the increase in the number of donations and professors.
The number of enrolled students has also increased due to the increase in the number of courses and the expansion of the campus. In 1900, it became a founding member of the American College Association. Radcliffe College, which was established in 1879, was an alliance with Harvard as a sister school and became the most famous female school in the United States. Later, they merged. Radcliffe became part of Harvard University.
From 1909 to 1933, Abbott Lwrence Lowell served as the president of Harvard University. He redesigned the undergraduate curriculum plan and implemented a system that combines the concentration and distribution of the curriculum so that students receive a good basic education; Earl’s mentoring system is still used by Harvard University. The implementation of this system has made it possible for undergraduates to have a small academic environment in a large comprehensive university. The first year after entry into the new student lives in a dormitory on or near the Harvard campus. After one year, the students share In the 12 dormitory buildings, the 13th dormitory building was also set up for a small number of day students. Each residence hall has a residential school teacher and a tutor group to guide students' learning and life.
James Bryant Conant, who took office as president in 1933, re-established a creative scholarship system to encourage and attract talents and ensure the university’s leadership in research institutions. He believes that higher education is for the truly talented, not the rich. He adjusted the curriculum to identify, recruit, and support talented young people. In 1943, he asked faculty members to provide a clear view of "what is the purpose of secondary and higher education?" In 1945, the resulting report became one of the most influential educational declarations of the 20th century in the United States.
From 1945 to 1960, Harvard changed its admission policy and began accepting students from different backgrounds, not just some children from aristocratic schools. The types of students have also begun to diversify. There are many more Jews and Catholics on campus, but blacks and Asians still make up a very small minority.
From 1953 to 1971, Phelps was the principal. Under his auspices, Harvard University conducted the largest fundraising event in the history of higher education in the United States and raised funds of 825 million U.S. dollars. This activity increased the salaries of teachers at Harvard University and expanded it. Funding for students, the establishment of a new professorship, and enrichment of teaching equipment.
From 1971 to 1991, Bock served as principal. He carefully handled some of the major issues in higher education, including administrative management, ethnic minority and women's access to education, and technology transfer between academia and industry. It reorganized Harvard’s management organization and introduced modern management methods and procedures into Harvard’s graduate schools and departments.
In 1991, Lu Dengting served as the 26th president. In order to better coordinate the relationship between the colleges and teachers, he created a school-wide academic program to identify Harvard's most important and priority parts. In addition, Lu Dengting also emphasized the responsibility of the university: excellent undergraduate education, the university’s doors are always open to people of different economic classes, how research universities adapt to the era of rapid information growth and severe fiscal constraints, to meet challenges in a free expression society .
At the end of the 20th century, women’s status at Harvard began to rise. In the early days, female students still concentrated in Radcliffe College. Although more and more female students are willing to enroll in Harvard courses, Harvard’s students are still dominated by men. On average, there are only one female in five students.
In 1999, Radcliffe College became the Radcliffe Advanced Research Institute at Harvard University. Drew Gilpin Foster, then dean, became the first female principal in Harvard’s founding school in more than 300 years in 2007, and is also an Ivy League school after the University of Pennsylvania, Brown University, and Princeton University. The fourth female principal.