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Above Standard Door Actuator

Above Standard Door Actuator

Above standard Door Actuator Further Reading Introduction of Lion: The lion is a large feline, and scientists have concluded from its evolutionary trajectory that the species originated about 120,000 years ago. The latest results published in the British journal BMC Evolutionary Biology were...

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Above standard Door Actuator



Further Reading

Introduction of Lion:


The lion is a large feline, and scientists have concluded from its evolutionary trajectory that the species originated about 120,000 years ago. The latest results published in the British journal BMC Evolutionary Biology were jointly completed by researchers from the United Kingdom, the United States, France and Australia. They sampled ancient lion specimens distributed in museums around the world, including extinct North African Barbary lions and Iranian lions. The researchers sequenced the genes and compared the sequencing results with existing Asian lions and African lions to arrive at a evolutionary roadmap for modern lions.
 
The results show that the lion originated in the eastern and southern parts of Africa about 124,000 years ago. About 21,000 years ago, the lion began to walk out of Africa, and the farthest reaches India and other places in Asia. From a branch perspective, modern lions are mainly divided into one in eastern and southern Africa and one in central Africa, the west, and India. The latter is currently in an endangered state, which means that lions are at risk of losing half of their genetic diversity. [5]
In the past few decades, the number of lions living in central and western Africa has decreased dramatically. This new study illustrates the protection of this lion from the perspective of genetic diversity to maintain the survival and development of the entire lion population. [5]
The Cape Lion and the Barbary Lion are two subspecies of extinction. The Cape Lions were extinct in the 19th century and did not leave any reliable records. The Barbary lion was extinct in the early part of the last century, but there are also some caged babies in the zoo. Their bristles are more developed and extend to the back and abdomen. The last position of the Barbary lion was the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. In 1922, the last Barbary lion was knocked down by human shotguns. The Asian lion in India is smaller than the African brothers and the mane is shorter. They are also on the verge of extinction. [6]
Asian lions have been widely distributed in Asia, but Asian lions have almost become extinct due to human hunting and environmental destruction. The lions living in Asia, especially in India, were almost killed by British colonists who were conquered in India in the early 20th century. Fortunately, the Indians who had always regarded the lions as sacred animals finally saved them and placed them in Gujarat, northwest India. Inside the Jill National Forest Park. The lions there have now spawned around 300-400 heads. After the Asian lions living in West Asia were extinct due to poaching, the Gil National Forest has become the last habitat of Asian lions.
 
Lions used to live in southeastern Europe, the Middle East, India and the African continent. Distributed throughout Africa, South Asia and the Middle East except for tropical rainforests. A subspecies survived in Central and North America during the glaciers, but they disappeared after the ice age. According to scholars at the time, there were lions living in the Balkans during the ancient Greek period. It is generally believed that European lions were extinct in the first century AD due to human activities. Now the lions in other parts of Asia except Jill in India have disappeared. There are no more wild lions in North Africa. The lions are now mainly distributed on the grasslands south of the Sahara Desert in Africa, so they are basically African specialties. [6]
Lions are the most successful species of evolution in modern cats. Their evolution reached its peak in the Quaternary. It was widely distributed in Africa, Europe and Asia, and the North American continent. They also invaded South and South America during the last glacial period. At the same time, in the evolution of the lion, many forms have been formed to adapt to the different climates, environmental conditions and prey bases of all continents, such as the famous cave lion (Panthera spelaea) and the American lion (Panthera atrox).
Current paleontological evidence shows that the earliest large feline (Panthera) fossils were unearthed in Tanzania, Tanzania, and belonged to the evening Eocene (Early Villafranchian) in the geological era. 3.5 million years of history. This large feline has many orthopedic characteristics of modern lions, and most scholars regard it as the oldest lion (Lion-liked Panthera sp.). Later, in the East Africa, the early Pleistocene lion fossil (Panthera shawi) was discovered 180-170 million years ago. In the early days of the Middle Pleistocene, lions were widely distributed in the eastern and southern parts of the African continent. At the same time, fossil records show that lions from Africa have begun to enter Eurasia. In the middle and late Pleistocene, lions have spread to continental Europe, the Panthera fossilis, the Middle East of Asia, Siberia, northern China (Zhoukoudian) and most of Southwest Asia (Panthera spelaea). The ability of these large cats to spread and radiate is staggering. For example, it took only 100 years for a lion to migrate from Siberia in Eurasia via the Bering Land Bridge to Alaska in North America! In the most recent glacial era, the lion invaded North and South America from South America.

Morphologically, the early Pleistocene lion fossils (Panthera shawi mandible, hip bone, femur) found in East Africa are no different from modern lions. This suggests that lions (and indeed other cats) have a slower rate of evolution in quality traits. But it has a faster rate of evolution of morphological size. The lion's material found in the middle and late stages of the Vera period in Europe is even larger than the modern African lion in terms of skull size and tooth size. Recently, through the size of the skull and teeth, the life form of the cave lion and giant jaguar has been accurately calculated and restored. The late Pleistocene American lions are quite large in size, they have a large proportion of thin limb bones, and they are also different from cave lions in skulls and teeth. Overall, changes in morphological dimensions are the focus of lion evolution. In addition, the evolution of mane has attracted the interest of many scholars. From the current point of view, the rock paintings made by the ancestors of the European Stone Age show that the early lions were not mane-like. These lions were called “Maneless forms”, which included the lion (Panthera spelaea). And the American lion (Panthera atrox). Until 10,000 years ago, innocent lions lived in Europe and the New World (North and South America). By the time of 320,000-190,000 years ago, modern lions began to appear and gradually replaced the innocent lions. The lions who live on the African continent and western Asia today are descendants of these lions.


In the process of radiation and diffusion of lions, there are many factors that play a leading role. The comprehensive analysis of paleoclimate, paleoenvironment, biogeography and ancient mammals shows that the climate and environment of the Pleistocene directly affect the connection between the continents. And isolation. Transgression and retreat, the replacement of the interglacial and glacial periods makes the continents sometimes connected and sometimes isolated. Complex changes in climate and environment also cause rapid differentiation of animals, especially the main prey of lions - large ungulates. These factors are the main driving force behind the evolution of the lion. In addition, the behavioral mechanism of becoming a social animal is also an important reason why Lions can be widely distributed.


In the evolutionary history of large terrestrial mammals, lions are undoubtedly the most successful evolutionary. In areas where lion populations flourish, other feline animals are always at a disadvantage. For example, lion fossils unearthed in Europe and North America are often much larger in number and location than leopards, jaguars, saber-toothed tigers, and sawtooth tigers of the same period. Lions did not spread to East Asia, probably because East Asian mountain forests (closed habitats) were not suitable for cluster animals such as lions, but were more suitable for another rising large panther animal, the tiger. Fossil evidence shows that tigers and lions always adopt the separation of niche in the process of radiation and diffusion to avoid direct evolutionary competition. Tigers tend to be closed habitats, and lions tend to open habitats. The population decline of the lion and tiger during the last glacial period was caused by the prosperity of the human population, and the large cats that once occupied the dominant position were eventually replaced by Homo sapiens.


There are many subspecies of the lion, and the anthropological community has also made a different classification of the subspecies of the lion. Previously, the 13 classifications of Lioncrusher's Domain prevail. These include two subspecies that have been extinct. Note: Barbary lion (also known as the North African lion, Atlas lion, is the lion's named subspecies. Extinct), Cape lion (Kebu lion, Cape of Good Hope, extinct), Kenyan lion, Marseille lion (East Africa Lion), South African lion (Kruger lion), Congo lion, Somali lion, Kalahari lion, Asian lion, West African lion (Senegalese lion), Cameroon lion, Roosevelt lion (Sultan lion, Ethiopian lion).


Mr. Hemmer proposed an eight-point method in 1974: 1 Barbary lion (North African lion, Atlas lion) (Plleo), 2 Persian lion (Plassica), 3 Nubian lion (East African lion) (Plnubica), 4 Congolese (Plazandica), 5 Kruger lions (Plasrugeri), 6 Cape lions (Plmelanochaita), 7 Katangan lions (Kara Harry lion) (Plbeneenberghi), 8 Senegalese lion (West African lion) (Plsenegalensis).
Genetically, modern lions are divided into two branches: the North African-Western African branch and the South African branch. [9] 
The latest published kinship geography studies show that lions in Asia and Africa are traditionally divided into many different subspecies that are unscientific and untenable. In 2014, the IUCN SSC feline expert group responsible for the cat classification task proposed a different classification from the traditional lion, divided into two subspecies, Asian lion and African lion. The African lion is divided into western and central regions according to the distribution area. , eastern, southern, northern subgroups. In conjunction with the African Lions Working Group, animal research scientists and colleagues conducted the preparation of taxa, including new molecular data from current research, including satellite-provided profiles, intact mitochondrial genomes and autosomal SNPs, strongly supporting this Sorting and identifying the identification of these revised subspecies. In view of the weak protection status of lions in some areas, this new classification is immediately supported by the IUCN Red List, which is very important for the development of the next phase of coherent and scientifically rational lion conservation strategies.


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